After 1827 and for most of the rest of the 19th century, life in New York City was difficult for African Americans in spite of being free. Open race hatred and discrimination were part of the social fabric.
In the 19th century, Europeans were generally taught that they were physically and mentally superior to people of African descent.
African Americans were denied equal legal and voting rights. They were excluded from most professions and many occupations, barred entry to leading museums, libraries, restaurants, hotels, etc., and had their access to public and private transportation restricted as well.
The Black community exerted constant pressure on those who ruled New York, using moral suasion, civil disobedience, and creative use of the legal system.
African American New York also developed its own institutions--churches, corporations, libraries, stores, theaters, schools, etc.; forced certain companies to integrate their services or premises; and helped make New York City the center of the abolition movement.
Links to Sites on the Abolition Movement